5G or fifth generation is part of the series on wireless network generations in mobile telecommunications. Deployment of this cellular network began in 2019 as a successor of the 4G network. Many cellular phone companies in different countries are contributing to the development of the 5G network.
Part 1: 5G speed introduction
Currently, the wireless network is in its early stages and is yet to be complete soon. Some countries of the world, such as the UK, US, Australia, and other countries; are already using the networks, especially for commercial demands. According to the GSM Association, the 5G network is predicted to have at least 1.7 billion subscribers by 2025. The rest of the world will have deployed; the wireless network to ensure 5G devices take advantage of this new network with more significant broadband.
As already experienced in countries with the 5G network, it is likely to become a significant boost of businesses; live streamers, gamers, industries; and other marked fields that invest hugely in wireless network technology.
Multiple carriers worldwide have ready announced various plans to launch the network to people later this year. Since the 5G network will require faster wireless transmission, broader support for simultaneous device connection; and lower latency than the predecessor 4G networks, it translates to faster speeds. This means that if you download 8K movies, 5G subscribers will likely take seconds rather than waiting for around 30 minutes as with the 4G network. The delivered speed is more reliable on smartphones and other wireless network technology devices than ever before.
The 5G network is anticipated to transmit vast amounts of data to enable a smart and connected world. The process will likely supercharge the internet of things technology as the network will be integrated into multiple smart devices we use daily. The development process is not over yet, but the rollout schedules will begin despite being slowed down by the Coronavirus outbreak. The network will expand while the carriers put more effort into developing current setups in new areas across the world.
5G takes a practical approach to ensure reliable connectivity. The 5G devices will be connected using radio waves using a local antenna array within small geographical areas called cells. These local antennas are connected with the internet and telephone network using wireless backhaul connection technology and a high bandwidth optical fiber. The protocol will enable the 5G network to connect about one million devices per square kilometer, higher throughput than the 4G network that supports about 100000 devices per square kilometer.
Part 2: About 5G performance
5G network is having an increasing demand for applications. The evolution in terms of throughput and latency experienced with this wireless network technology explains the demand. The 5th-generation communication network will accommodate many devices and support the existing application because of the new features and technology utilized with the 5G network. The new features that bring the new experiences with the 5G wireless network include the MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output), small dense network, movable base station, beamforming, and millimeter-wave frequency. The features trigger fast data traffic and a huge expansion of the wireless network.
Looking at the current research and developments on the 5G network going on, the 5G wireless systems aim to resolve unprecedented technical challenges. Similarly, more devices demand the new 5G network to run data, voice and perform various processes to improve life quality. This interprets the need for more capacity; hence more industries are evolving towards the 5G wireless network. The following are technical requirements geared towards making the 5G network a better solution to its demands.
Latency: it has been challenging to achieve the latency requirement considering the data rate and demands delivered within a specific period. The latency of the 5G wireless network provides an end-to-end latency requirement of 1-5ms.
Coverage and data rate: 5G wireless network aims at maintaining reliable connectivity in all its coverage with a minimum data rate of 1Gbps.
Connected devices: 5G has the vision to incorporate a vast number of devices. It will allow them to communicate with a data rate of up to x100 4G network.
Energy and Cost efficiency: cellular companies are looking to design the 5G network to meet the requirements of every data-consuming application in various fields at a lower cost. Similarly, 5G aims to deliver higher energy efficiency than the predecessor wireless network generations.
Multiple Radio Access Efficiency: the development of the 5G wireless network technology does not intend to replace the existing 4G network. The network is built on the current wireless technologies to deliver reliable connectivity and provide smart solutions to the telecommunication industry’s demands. These technologies include long term evolution advanced (LTE-A), Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), third generation of mobile communications (3G) long term evolution (LTE), AND high-speed packet access (HSPA).
The above requirements are key drivers to enable data-intensive applications to work efficiently as demanded by industries and academia in the past years. Following these requirements, multiple technologies require deployment to bring 5G networks into a reality, and they include the following.
Millimeter-wave frequency: 5G wireless network utilizes the frequency spectrum that is under 6GHz. The millimeter-wave provides the best environment with a higher response to vast network capacity requirements.
Massive MIMO: the MIMO technology is an extension high applicable on the 4G wireless network to work with many antennas. The millimeter-wave frequencies utilize the MIMO technology to transmit higher frequencies, which require smaller antenna elements. Many antennas are necessary for the base station and mobile station to ensure receivers and transceivers architecture work with high efficiency.
Small cells: 5G will likely experience a high number of users hence increasing the traffic demand. Small cells are required to provide a priority aspect in the 5G network.
Part 3: How fast is 5G?
The wireless cellular networks are evolving, bringing new experiences to the market. The major driving factors in deploying a new wireless network revolve around speed, low latency, and increased reliability. The conversion to a 5G network is accompanied by the demand for a breakthrough in speed. Many mobile cellular companies aim to utilize different technologies to ensure the anticipated network speed is achieved during the development of 5G networks. Some countries like the UK, US, Australia, and various countries worldwide are already experiencing the 5G at a variable speed depending on what carriers in the country can deliver.
Various operators working on the 5G speed trials have reported up to 20Gbps peak data rates and over 100Mbps average data rates. In addition to the 5G network peak speed, the wireless network is designed to deliver a diverse network capacity by expanding into mmWave.
5G also delivers a low latency compared to the predecessor network generations. Low latency integrates the immediate response and overall uniform experience demonstrated with the 5G network. Similarly, the data rates stay consistently high even when 5G subscribers are moving around.
Besides the breathtaking speed experienced with the 5G wireless network, the network has an adaptive signal coding system that significantly keeps the error rates as low as possible. On the other hand, the range of 5G connectivity is a significant concern. 5G depends on several factors to determine its range, whereby the frequency is typically the driving factor. While the mmWave signals have a low range of a couple of hundred meters, the low band signal can have a range of hundreds of kilometers in the right circumstances.
Part 4: 5G applications you need to know
5G is a new wireless network development that has impacted data transmission over cellular networks significantly. Multiple providers are working on the 5G infrastructure rollout to ensure vast potential applications in various cases. The applications of 5G wireless network technology are described below.
Expansion of IoT
Extensive use of IoT integrated with 5G technology is already reported in industrial and commercial fields to monitor and optimize logistics and production. 5g has impacted the wireless flexibility and lower latency, allowing a streamline of various infrastructures, automation in factories, interconnection of devices, and increased visibility in many supply chains.
Real-time data for better decision making
5G networks provide real-time data in healthcare facilities, retail environments, power utility grids; and other fields to help organizations make defined decisions. Much information can be transmitted quickly through the 5G network.
Full development of the 5G network will help complete the development of autonomous vehicle projects. Self-driving cars will use 5G in data transmission and deliver a tremendous amount of information to the autonomous vehicle network. 5G will also play a critical role in autonomous vehicles like automatic diagnosis; predictive maintenance, fleet management, operating system updates, and in-car payments.
The health sector will hugely benefit from the 5G network allowing the expansion of IoT devices;’ flexibility without causing any compromise on performance. Telemedicine services will also be faster and reliable through the 5G connectivity.
Smart city applications
Cities across the world will use the 5G wireless network to find a solution to minimize traffic congestions; deliver efficient public service and improve safety on roads. Smart IoT with sensors could transmit data quickly through the 5G network to offer notification to authorities; concerning traffic problems and other conditions.
5G is creating new possibilities across the world in various sectors. The incredible speed and reliability in data transmissions provide better strategies for boosting multiple commercial industry projects. Many mobile cellular companies in various countries are making commitments to facilitate ;the 5G rollout closer to customers and facilities to improve performance and trigger innovations to enhance life quality.
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